Tax Rates and Allowances 2023/24: Essential Updates for UK Taxpayers - More Than Accountants

Tax Rates and Allowances 2023/24: Essential Updates for UK Taxpayers

Tax Rates and Allowances 2023/24: Essential Updates for UK Taxpayers

The tax year 2023/24 brings new changes to the tax rates and allowances that directly impact your finances. Understanding these adjustments is essential in effectively managing your income and tax liabilities during this period. In this article, we will explore the updated tax bands and allowances, making it easy for you to navigate the complexities of the UK tax system.

As you assess your income for the 2023/24 tax year, be aware that the Personal Allowance, the tax-free amount you can earn, is a vital aspect of calculating your tax liability. Additionally, it’s essential to comprehend the various marginal income tax bands, including the 20% basic rate, the 40% higher rate, and the 45% additional rate, especially for residents in England, Wales, or Northern Ireland1.

Keep in mind that your personal allowance may be subject to changes if your earnings exceed £100,000. By staying informed about these tax rates and allowances, you can make well-informed decisions that will help you manage your financial responsibilities efficiently throughout the 2023/24 tax year.

Fundamentals of Tax Rates and Allowances

In the 2023/24 tax year, the UK government has set specific income tax rates and allowances that affect your taxable income. It’s essential to be aware of these rates and allowances to understand your financial obligations. For a comprehensive overview, visit UK Tax Rates, Thresholds, and Allowances.

Personal Allowance and Tax Rates: Your tax-free personal allowance is the amount of income you can earn before paying any income tax. For the 2023/24 tax year, the personal allowance is set at £12,570. Income above your personal allowance is taxed at different rates depending on your earnings. The basic rate tax (20%) applies to income between £12,571 and £50,270; the higher rate tax (40%) corresponds to income between £50,271 and £150,000; finally, the additional rate tax (45%) is charged on income above £150,000.

Tax Bands: Tax bands refer to income ranges within which a specific income tax rate applies. In 2023/24, the tax bands are as follows:

  • Basic rate: £12,571 – £50,270 (20% tax rate)
  • Higher rate: £50,271 – £150,000 (40% tax rate)
  • Additional rate: £150,001 and over (45% tax rate).

National Insurance Contributions (NICs): Besides income tax, you are also required to pay National Insurance contributions if you’re above 16 years old and an employee or self-employed. The rates and thresholds for these contributions are updated regularly and can be found on the GOV.UK website.

Annual Allowance and Tax Relief: The annual allowance is the amount you can contribute each year to your pension, without incurring any extra tax charges. As of the 2023/24 tax year, the annual allowance is set at £40,000. You should also be aware that tax relief is available for your pension contributions, which helps reduce your overall taxable income. Basic-rate taxpayers receive relief at 20%, higher rate taxpayers at 40%, and additional rate taxpayers at 45%.

Remember to keep track of your taxable income, stay knowledgeable about the latest rates and allowances, and proactively manage your tax obligations. This will ensure you’re well-prepared for the 2023/24 tax year.

Overview of Income Tax Bands

In the 2023/24 tax year, your income tax liability will be determined by which tax bands your taxable income falls into. There are three main income tax bands in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: the 20% basic rate, the 40% higher rate, and the 45% additional rate1. As your income increases, a higher percentage of your earnings will be subject to these tax rates.

Income Tax Bands:

  • Basic rate (20%): This is the first tax band, and it applies to your taxable income above your tax-free personal allowance.
  • Higher rate (40%): The higher rate kicks in once your taxable income exceeds a certain threshold. You will be taxed at the 40% rate on the portion of your income that falls within this band.
  • Additional rate (45%): This rate applies to the income above the highest income threshold. If your taxable income reaches this level, you will be taxed 45% on the income within this band1.

Your tax-free personal allowance is a crucial aspect of your tax calculation. For the 2023/24 tax year, the standard personal allowance is £12,5702. This personal allowance reduces by £1 for every £2 of income above the £100,000 limit3, and can go down to zero.

Keep in mind that the tax bands are marginal, meaning each tax band only applies to a specific portion of your income. As your earnings increase, your income progresses through each tax band, and you will pay the corresponding tax rate only on the income within that band.

When calculating your taxable income, ensure that you deduct any tax reliefs and allowances you are eligible for, such as pension contributions or charitable donations. This will help you understand how your income is divided among the different tax bands and so determine your total tax liability.

National Insurance Contributions

National Insurance contributions (NICs) are compulsory payments made by both employees and employers in the UK. For a deeper understanding, especially if you’re self-employed, read about Self-Employed National Insurance.

Firstly, be aware of the four main thresholds: the Lower Earnings Limit (LEL), Primary Threshold, Secondary Threshold, and Upper Earnings Limit (UEL). These thresholds determine the percentage of your earnings that are subject to National Insurance contributions.

  • Lower Earnings Limit (LEL): Below this threshold, you don’t pay any National Insurance contributions. However, you still receive qualifying years towards your State Pension. For the 2023/24 tax year, the LEL is currently set at £123 per week.
  • Primary Threshold: The earnings between the LEL and Primary Threshold are subject to a reduced National Insurance rate for employees. The Primary Threshold for the 2023/24 tax year is £184 per week.
  • Secondary Threshold: Your employer starts paying National Insurance on your earnings above this limit. The Secondary Threshold is set at £170 per week for the 2023/24 tax year.
  • Upper Earnings Limit (UEL): Above this threshold, both you and your employer pay a lower rate of National Insurance. The UEL is set at £967 per week for the 2023/24 tax year.

The main categories of National Insurance rates include Class 1, Class 1A, and Class 4. As an employee, you’ll pay Class 1 contributions, while employers pay Class 1A. Self-employed individuals are subject to Class 4 NICs.

The new Health and Social Care Levy, announced in September 2021, will take effect from April 2023. This 1.25% increase has been applied to both employee and employer National Insurance rates, as well as Class 4 NICs for self-employed individuals.

Here’s a summary of the main National Insurance rates for the 2023/24 tax year:

  • Class 1 (employee): 13.25% between the Primary Threshold and Upper Earnings Limit, and 3.25% above the UEL.
  • Class 1 (employer): 15.05% above the Secondary Threshold.
  • Class 1A rate (employer): 15.05% on expenses and benefits provided to employees.
  • Class 4 NICs (self-employed): 10.25% between the Lower Profits Limit and Upper Profits Limit, and 3.25% above the Upper Profits Limit.

In conclusion, understanding these National Insurance rates and thresholds is important for both employees and employers to ensure compliance with UK tax regulations. As the rates and allowances may change each tax year, always stay updated on the latest information and adjustments.

Pension and Savings Taxation

In the 2023/24 tax year, there are several key aspects of pension and savings taxation to consider. As you plan your financial future, it’s essential to be aware of your allowances and tax rates to make informed decisions.

Your state pension and private or workplace pensions are subject to tax. Discover how to make effective pension contributions as a limited company at Can Make Pension Contributions Limited Company?. Also, learn about dividend taxation at Dividends: What Are They and What Taxes Do I Pay on Them?.

In addition to your state pension, you may also have a private or workplace pension. These pensions are also subject to tax. The lifetime allowance for the 2023/24 tax year sets a limit on the total amount you can accrue in pension benefits without incurring additional taxes. The lifetime allowance may vary year on year, so it’s essential to remain up-to-date with the current limits.

Another key aspect of pension taxation is the money purchase annual allowance (MPAA). This allowance affects those who have already begun accessing their pension savings in a flexible manner, such as drawing income from a defined contribution pension. The MPAA limits the amount you can contribute to your pension tax-free. Be sure to consult the Pension schemes rates – GOV.UK for more details on the MPAA and other allowances.

When it comes to savings, your personal savings allowance (PSA) determines how much interest you can earn tax-free on your savings. For the 2023/24 tax year, there are different PSA levels depending on your income tax bracket. As a basic rate taxpayer, you can earn up to a certain amount of interest tax-free. In contrast, higher rate taxpayers have a lower allowance, and additional rate taxpayers do not benefit from a PSA.

In summary, knowing your pension and savings tax allowances, as well as the various tax rates applicable to your situation, enables you to make informed financial decisions. Stay updated on the latest changes in tax rates, allowances, and regulation to efficiently manage your finances.

Employers and employees need to be aware of their tax obligations. Employers, in particular, should understand common mistakes to avoid, as explained in Disciplinary Procedures: Common Mistakes Made by Employers. Additionally, taking on an apprentice can have tax implications, detailed at Taking on an Apprentice: Full Details.

Regional Tax Rates and Allowances

In the UK, tax rates and allowances can vary depending on the region. The four nations, namely Scotland, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, all have their respective tax systems.


Scotland, governed by the Scottish Parliament, has unique Income Tax rates and bands for its residents. These rates apply to non-savings and non-dividend income. Scottish taxpayers pay the same Income Tax rates as those in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland for their savings and dividend income. For more information on the latest Scottish Income Tax rates and allowances, you can visit the Scottish Government website.

England and Northern Ireland

In England and Northern Ireland, Income Tax rates and allowances follow the same framework. The standard Personal Allowance for 2023/24 is £12,570, and the tax bands for Basic, Higher, and Additional rate taxpayers are consistent across these two regions. For more details, you can refer to the UK Government’s Income Tax rates page.


Welsh taxpayers also follow the same Income Tax rates and bands as England and Northern Ireland, with the exception of a specific reduction for Welsh taxpayers. The Welsh government can alter these rates to tailor tax policies according to the needs of Wales. You can find further information on the Income Tax rates for Wales on the Welsh Government website.

To conclude, tax rates and allowances in the UK can differ between regions. It is important for you to be aware of the specific tax regulations in your region. This knowledge will help you better manage your personal finances and stay informed about any updates or changes in the tax system.

Allowances and Reliefs

During the 2023/24 tax year, there are various tax allowances and reliefs available to you that can help reduce your tax liability. Some of the key allowances and reliefs include the personal allowance, married couple’s allowance, blind person’s allowance, marriage allowance, dividend allowance, starting rate for savings, and payable credit.

The personal allowance is the amount of income you can earn tax-free each year. In the 2023/24 tax year, the personal allowance is set to £12,570. Remember, your personal allowance may be reduced if your income is over £100,000 1.

If you’re a married couple or in a civil partnership and at least one of you was born before 6 April 1935, you may be eligible for the married couple’s allowance2. This allowance can reduce your tax bill by up to £912.50 annually.

Blind person’s allowance is an extra amount of tax-free allowance given to individuals who are registered as blind or severely visually impaired. For the 2023/24 tax year, the blind person’s allowance is set at £2,520.

Marriage allowance is designed for couples where one partner earns less than the personal allowance and the other partner is a basic-rate taxpayer. The lower earner can transfer up to 10% of their personal allowance to their partner, potentially reducing their tax bill by up to £252.

The dividend allowance is another tax-free allowance provided if the total amount of dividend payments received in a tax year exceeds the personal allowance or if the personal allowance has been fully utilised. For the 2023/24 tax year, the dividend allowance is set at £1,000.

Regarding your savings income, there’s a starting rate for savings which provides a 0% tax rate on the first £5,000 of savings interest for individuals with a total income of up to £17,570. This starting rate is designed to help those on low incomes with their savings interest.

Additionally, you may be eligible for payable credits that are quite useful for the low-income earners. Depending on your circumstances, you may be eligible for tax credits like Working Tax Credit or Child Tax Credit. These credits can top up your income and help you manage your expenses more effectively.

Keep these allowances and reliefs in mind when planning your finances for the 2023/24 tax year. By making the most of these allowances and reliefs, you can ensure your tax liabilities are minimised and your hard-earned money works for you.

In the UK, tax rates and allowances can vary depending on the region. For residents in Scotland, refer to Scottish Income Tax Rates.

Employer and Employee Tax Implications

As an employer, it is essential to be aware of the tax rates and allowances for the 2023/24 tax year to ensure compliance with UK tax laws. This includes understanding your obligations regarding national insurance contributions, providing benefits to employees, and other tax-related matters.

For both employers and employees, national insurance is a crucial aspect of tax, contributing to the UK’s social welfare system. Employers are responsible for deducting Class 1 national insurance contributions from their employees’ wages, and both employee and employer rates need to be considered. In 2023/24, the employee rate for earnings between £184 and £967 per week is 12%, while earnings above £967 are subject to a 2% contribution rate. For employers, the rate is 13.8% on all employee earnings above the £170 secondary threshold.

When it comes to providing employee benefits, such as company cars, health insurance, or homeworking expenses, you must understand the associated tax implications. As well as paying Class 1A national insurance on these benefits, you must also report them to HM Revenue & Customs. It’s essential to check the specific tax rules and reporting requirements for each type of benefit provided.

In 2023/24, the personal tax allowance is £12,570, which means your employees can earn this amount without paying any income tax. The basic rate of 20% applies to income between £12,571 and £50,270, followed by a 40% higher rate on income from £50,271 to £150,000, and a 45% additional rate on income over £150,000.

Employers should also take note of the following responsibilities:

  • Statutory sick pay: You are required to provide financial support to eligible employees when they’re off work due to illness.
  • Apprenticeship levy: Employers with an annual pay bill of more than £3 million need to contribute 0.5% of their total pay bill, which helps fund apprenticeship programs.
  • National minimum and living wage: Ensure employees are paid according to the UK’s minimum wage laws for their age group and working hours.
  • Student loan repayments: If your employees have student loans, you must deduct the required repayments from their wages and report these to HMRC.

By staying up-to-date with the latest tax rates, thresholds, and allowances, you can confidently manage your responsibilities as an employer while helping your employees understand their tax obligations.

Taxation of Capital Gains and Dividends

In the 2023/24 tax year, both capital gains and dividends are subject to taxation. Understanding how these taxes apply to your investment income can help you make informed decisions and maximise your returns.

Capital gains tax (CGT) is applied when you sell or dispose of an asset that has increased in value. For the 2023/24 tax year, the tax-free allowance for capital gains is £6,000. This means you only need to pay tax on any gains above this threshold. Keep in mind that CGT rates vary depending on the type of asset and your income level. To learn more about the specific rates and allowances, visit the GOV.UK website.

On the other hand, dividend income is taxed differently. Dividends are payments made by companies to their shareholders as a reward for investing in their business. In the 2023/24 tax year, you do not pay tax on any dividend income that falls within your Personal Allowance. Your Personal Allowance is the amount of income you can earn each year without paying tax. To learn more about how dividends are taxed, visit the GOV.UK webpage.

It’s important to remember that capital gains tax and dividend income tax are separate from each other. While you may have a £6,000 tax-free allowance for capital gains, this does not apply to your dividend income. However, you can still use your Personal Allowance to minimise your overall tax liability.

In conclusion, by understanding the tax rates and allowances for the 2023/24 tax year, you can better manage your investment income and reduce your tax liability. Stay informed about any changes in tax rates and allowances, and consider seeking professional advice if you need assistance navigating the complexities of taxation.

For information on capital gains tax, visit Capital Gains Tax.

Inheritance and Corporation Tax Rates

In the 2023/24 tax year, the Inheritance Tax allowance, also known as the nil-rate band, remains at £325,000. This allowance has been unchanged since the 2010/11 tax year. Anything in your estate above this threshold is subject to a standard Inheritance Tax rate of 40%.

When it comes to Corporation Tax, the main rate is applied to your company’s taxable profits. If your company’s taxable profits are £300,000 or below, the Small Profits Rate is implemented instead.

For more details on specific tax rates and allowances, the Overview of tax legislation and rates (OOTLAR) for the 2023/24 tax year provides comprehensive information on various tax rates and allowances, along with tables to guide you through the tax year.

It is crucial that you stay updated with any changes in tax rates or allowances, as these can directly impact your company and personal finances. By keeping informed, you can ensure that you take full advantage of any tax reliefs and efficiently manage your tax liabilities.

Learn how to reduce your company’s corporation tax at How to Reduce Your Company’s Corporation Tax.

Implications for Residential Property and Stamp Duty

With the tax year 2023/24 underway, there are key changes and implications related to residential property and stamp duty which you should be aware of. For first time buyers purchasing properties up to £625,000, there is relief available in the form of a discount on Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT) source. Properties with a cost under £425,000 are exempt from SDLT, while those between £425,000 and £625,000 have a reduced rate. However, for properties exceeding £625,000, the normal rates apply.

From 23 September 2022 to 31 March 2025, the SDLT nil-rate threshold for residential properties has been increased from £125,000 to £250,000 source. This means that if you are a first time buyer during this period, you’ll benefit from a higher threshold than before, potentially reducing the overall SDLT payable.

Key SDLT rates for residential properties in the 2023/24 tax year:

  • Up to £250,000: 0%
  • £250,001 to £925,000: 5%
  • £925,001 to £1.5 million: 10%
  • Over £1.5 million: 12%

As a homeowner or property investor, it’s essential to stay on top of these changes. In addition to Stamp Duty Land Tax for residential properties, you should also be informed about other related taxes, such as Stamp Duty Reserve Tax (SDRT) for the purchase of shares and securities. SDRT rates vary depending on the transaction type and value, so you’ll need to consult specific regulations for your circumstances source.

Remember to consider tax rates and allowances when purchasing a residential property, as these can significantly impact your finances and overall investment strategy. By staying informed and understanding the implications of these taxes, you can make more informed decisions and optimise your property portfolio.

Tax Code and Thresholds

Your tax code plays a crucial role in determining the amount of income tax you need to pay. It typically consists of a combination of numbers and letters that signify your personal allowance – the amount of income you can earn before being taxed. Keep an eye on your tax code, as it helps your employer or pension provider know how much tax to deduct from your payments.

In the 2023/24 tax year, the personal allowance for most people is £12,570. It’s important to note that your personal allowance decreases by £1 for every £2 you earn above £100,000, and it can go down to zero. For those living in England, Wales, or Northern Ireland, there are three marginal income tax bands:

  • 20% basic rate for income between £12,571 and £50,270
  • 40% higher rate for income between £50,271 and £150,000
  • 45% additional rate for income over £150,000

The higher rate threshold is the point at which your income crosses into the 40% tax bracket. In the 2023/24 tax year, this threshold stands at £50,270. Keep in mind that your personal allowance starts to shrink once your earnings hit £100,000.

By understanding your tax code and tax thresholds, you can better manage your income tax payments and personal finances. Make sure to check for any updates or changes in the tax rates and allowances, as these can vary from one tax year to another.

Tax Allowances for Specific Groups

In the UK, certain groups can benefit from specific tax allowances to help reduce their Income Tax burden. As a resident, it’s essential to understand the allowances for which you may qualify, such as for civil partners, blind person’s allowance, and marriage allowance. Below is a brief overview of these allowances:

Civil Partners: If you are in a civil partnership, you can effectively transfer parts of your Personal Allowance between each other. This is known as the Marriage Allowance, and it can help you and your partner reduce your combined tax bill. Remember that the Marriage Allowance also applies to married couples.

Blind Person’s Allowance: Should you be registered as blind or severely visually impaired, you may qualify for the Blind Person’s Allowance. This is an additional tax-free allowance on top of the standard Personal Allowance (£12,570 for the 2023/24 tax year), which means you can earn more before being liable to pay Income Tax.

Marriage Allowance: Marriage Allowance allows you to transfer a portion of your unused Personal Allowance to your spouse or civil partner, provided they earn less than you and qualify for the basic rate of Income Tax. In the 2023/24 tax year, you could transfer up to £1,260 of your allowance, potentially saving your partner up to £252 on their tax bill. To find out more about eligibility and apply for Marriage Allowance, visit the GOV.UK website.

Knowing your eligibility for these specific tax allowances can help you efficiently manage your taxes while benefiting from additional reliefs and deductions. It’s essential to understand the criteria and apply for the relevant allowances, ensuring you and your loved ones take full advantage of the tax system provisions.

Government and Tax Year 2023/24

In the tax year 2023/24, you’ll notice some changes to the income tax rates and allowances. The income tax personal allowance is set at £12,570 and the higher rate threshold at £50,270. These figures will be maintained until further notice.

For the 2023/24 tax year, the additional rate of income tax remains at 45%. However, the additional rate threshold will be lowered from £150,000 to £125,140. Being aware of these changes can help you better understand your tax liabilities.

When it comes to dividends, the Dividend Allowance for the 2023/24 tax year is set at £1,000, reduced from the previous £2,000 allowance. You can claim this tax-free dividend allowance if the total amount of dividend payments you receive in a tax year exceeds your personal allowance, or if your personal allowance has been fully utilised.

To summarise, for the 2023/24 tax year, you should be aware of:

  • Income tax personal allowance: £12,570
  • Higher rate threshold: £50,270
  • Additional rate of income tax: 45%
  • Additional rate threshold: £125,140
  • Dividend Allowance: £1,000

Paying attention to these rates and allowances will ensure that you are well-prepared for the upcoming tax year and make informed decisions about your tax planning.

VAT Rates for 2023/24

In the 2023/24 tax year, you will need to know the applicable VAT rates for your business. Understanding these rates is crucial, as they impact the amount of VAT you charge customers and the amount you can reclaim on your purchases.

The standard VAT rate for 2023/24 remains at 20%. This rate applies to most goods and services that you sell, hire, or provide. Examples include clothing, electrical goods, and professional services. It’s important to be aware of this rate, as it might directly affect your customers, influencing their purchasing decisions.

Additionally, you should be familiar with the reduced VAT rate of 5%. This rate applies to a limited range of goods and services, such as home energy supplies and some children’s car seats. By understanding when the reduced VAT rate applies, you can ensure that you correctly account for the VAT incurred on those transactions.

It’s also worth noting the zero VAT rate (0%), which applies to certain essential items. These include most food products, books, and children’s clothing. Charging zero VAT means that you don’t charge your customers any VAT, but you can still reclaim the VAT from the goods and services you purchase for your business.

Overall, keeping yourself updated with the VAT rates for 2023/24 is vital for effectively managing your business’s finances. As a knowledgeable business owner, you’ll want to ensure you remain compliant with the current VAT regulations while maximising your potential rebates. The key to doing so is confidently applying the correct VAT rate to each of your transactions, helping you maintain a neutral and clear financial record.

For those needing to know about VAT rates, the article VAT Registration, Reporting, and What Rate of VAT Applies can be highly informative.

Additional Accounting Services

For those seeking more specialized services, More Than Accountants offers a range of options, including Limited Company Accounting, Partnership Accountancy Services, Limited Liability Partnerships Accountancy Services, and Xero Accountants. Additionally, our suite of Accountancy Services can assist with everything from Company Accounts and Tax Returns to Bookkeeping Services and Management Reports.

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